Thursday, 2 July 2015

How To: Install/Upgrade to Linux Kernel 4.1.1 in Ubuntu/Linux Mint Systems

    The Linux Kernel 4.1.1 is now available for the users, announced Linus Torvalds. This Linux Kernel version comes with plenty of fixes and improvements. This article will guide you to install or upgrade to Linux Kernel 4.1.1 in your Ubuntu or Linux Mint system.


Installation

For 32-Bit Systems

Download the .deb packages.

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.1.1-unstable/linux-headers-4.1.1-040101_4.1.1-040101.201507011435_all.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.1.1-unstable/linux-headers-4.1.1-040101-generic_4.1.1-040101.201507011435_i386.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.1.1-unstable/linux-image-4.1.1-040101-generic_4.1.1-040101.201507011435_i386.deb
Install them.

$ sudo dpkg -i linux-headers-4.1.1*.deb linux-image-4.1.1*.deb
Reboot the system.

sudo reboot

For 64-Bit Systems

Download the .deb packages.

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.1.1-unstable/linux-headers-4.1.1-040101_4.1.1-040101.201507011435_all.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.1.1-unstable/linux-headers-4.1.1-040101-generic_4.1.1-040101.201507011435_amd64.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.1.1-unstable/linux-image-4.1.1-040101-generic_4.1.1-040101.201507011435_amd64.deb
Install them.

$ sudo dpkg -i linux-headers-4.1.1*.deb linux-image-4.1.1*.deb
Reboot the system.

sudo reboot

To uninstall,

sudo apt-get remove 'linux-headers-4.1.1*' 'linux-image-4.1.1*'

How To: Install/Upgrade to Linux Kernel 4.0.7 in Ubuntu/Linux Mint Systems

    The Linux Kernel 4.0.7 is now available for the users, announced Linus Torvalds. This Linux Kernel version comes with plenty of fixes and improvements. This article will guide you to install or upgrade to Linux Kernel 4.0.7 in your Ubuntu or Linux Mint system.


Installation

For 32-Bit Systems

Download the .deb packages.

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.7-wily/linux-headers-4.0.7-040007_4.0.7-040007.201506292135_all.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.7-wily/linux-headers-4.0.7-040007-generic_4.0.7-040007.201506292135_i386.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.7-wily/linux-image-4.0.7-040007-generic_4.0.7-040007.201506292135_i386.deb
Install them.

$ sudo dpkg -i linux-headers-4.0.7*.deb linux-image-4.0.7*.deb
Reboot the system.

sudo reboot

For 64-Bit Systems

Download the .deb packages.

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.7-wily/linux-headers-4.0.7-040007_4.0.7-040007.201506292135_all.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.7-wily/linux-headers-4.0.7-040007-generic_4.0.7-040007.201506292135_amd64.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.7-wily/linux-image-4.0.7-040007-generic_4.0.7-040007.201506292135_amd64.deb
Install them.

$ sudo dpkg -i linux-headers-4.0.7*.deb linux-image-4.0.7*.deb
Reboot the system.

sudo reboot

To uninstall,

sudo apt-get remove 'linux-headers-4.0.7*' 'linux-image-4.0.7*'

Wednesday, 24 June 2015

How To: Install/Upgrade to Linux Kernel 4.0.6 in Ubuntu/Linux Mint Systems

    The Linux Kernel 4.0.6 is now available for the users, announced Linus Torvalds. This Linux Kernel version comes with plenty of fixes and improvements. This article will guide you to install or upgrade to Linux Kernel 4.0.6 in your Ubuntu or Linux Mint system.


Installation

For 32-Bit Systems

Download the .deb packages.

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.6-wily/linux-headers-4.0.6-040006_4.0.6-040006.201506222135_all.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.6-wily/linux-headers-4.0.6-040006-generic_4.0.6-040006.201506222135_i386.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.6-wily/linux-image-4.0.6-040006-generic_4.0.6-040006.201506222135_i386.deb
Install them.

$ sudo dpkg -i linux-headers-4.0.6*.deb linux-image-4.0.6*.deb
Reboot the system.

sudo reboot

For 64-Bit Systems

Download the .deb packages.

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.6-wily/linux-headers-4.0.6-040006_4.0.6-040006.201506222135_all.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.6-wily/linux-headers-4.0.6-040006-generic_4.0.6-040006.201506222135_amd64.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.6-wily/linux-image-4.0.6-040006-generic_4.0.6-040006.201506222135_amd64.deb
Install them.

$ sudo dpkg -i linux-headers-4.0.6*.deb linux-image-4.0.6*.deb
Reboot the system.

sudo reboot

To uninstall,

sudo apt-get remove 'linux-headers-4.0.6*' 'linux-image-4.0.6*'

Monday, 22 June 2015

How To: Install/Upgrade to Linux Kernel 4.1.0 in Ubuntu/Linux Mint Systems

    The Linux Kernel 4.1.0 is now available for the users, announced Linus Torvalds. This Linux Kernel version comes with plenty of fixes and improvements. This article will guide you to install or upgrade to Linux Kernel 4.1.0 in your Ubuntu or Linux Mint system.


Installation

For 32-Bit Systems

Download the .deb packages.

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.1-unstable/linux-headers-4.1.0-040100_4.1.0-040100.201506220235_all.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.1-unstable/linux-headers-4.1.0-040100-generic_4.1.0-040100.201506220235_i386.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.1-unstable/linux-image-4.1.0-040100-generic_4.1.0-040100.201506220235_i386.deb
Install them.

$ sudo dpkg -i linux-headers-4.1.0*.deb linux-image-4.1.0*.deb
Reboot the system.

sudo reboot

For 64-Bit Systems

Download the .deb packages.

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.1-unstable/linux-headers-4.1.0-040100_4.1.0-040100.201506220235_all.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.1-unstable/linux-headers-4.1.0-040100-generic_4.1.0-040100.201506220235_amd64.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.1-unstable/linux-image-4.1.0-040100-generic_4.1.0-040100.201506220235_amd64.deb
Install them.

$ sudo dpkg -i linux-headers-4.1.0*.deb linux-image-4.1.0*.deb
Reboot the system.

sudo reboot

To uninstall,

sudo apt-get remove 'linux-headers-4.1.0*' 'linux-image-4.1.0*'

Thursday, 11 June 2015

How To : Set up a FTPS (FTP over SSL) Server on Linux

    FTP is a standardized network protocol and probably the quickest as well as easiest option available when a large chunk of data is to be transferred, from one host to another, over a TCP-based network. FTP defines a client-server architecture which uses two separate ‘well-known’ ports, for data (port no. 20, used for data transfer) and control (port no. 21, used for authentication) connections, in order to establish connectivity between the server and the client.


    When it comes to Linux operating system, the most popular package used to setup a FTP server is ‘VSFTPD’ i.e. ‘Very Secure FTP Daemon’. It offers very basic features such as ‘Anonymous enable/disable’, ‘Local enable/disable’ and ‘Chroot jail for the users’. But, when looked from the security perspective, ‘vsftpd’ has very less features to offer. Whenever the file transfer is initiated, all the data - including user credentials and passwords, gets transferred in an unencrypted format, as a plain text, which is considered to be very risky and undesirable on any public network.

    As a security measure, we have two options, that offer secure file transfer capabilities, which are - SFTP and FTPS. SFTP uses SSH connection to run file transfers over a secure channel, while FTPS uses cryptographic protocols such as SSL (Secure Socket Layer) and TLS (Transport Layer Security). This article elaborates on the SFTP part in order to setup a secure FTP server using SSL certificates.

Installation of required packages

  • openssl
  • vsftpd
To install above packages in Debian-based systems, you can run:

sudo apt-get install vsftpd
sudo apt-get install openssl
On Red hat Linux- based systems, you can run:

yum install vsftpd
yum install openssl

Generating the SSL certificate and RSA key file

    In this step, we will create a SSL Certificate file (rsa_cert_file) and RSA key file (rsa_private_key_file), that will be used by vsftpd for the data encryption purpose. It is very important to set the paths of both these files, as those must be mentioned in the vsftpd configuration file (Red Hat -/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf and Debian - /etc/vsftpd.conf) in ‘rsa_cert_file’ and ‘rsa_private_key_file’ variables. By default (in RHEL), ‘rsa_cert_file’ will point to ‘/usr/share/ssl/certs/vsftpd.pem’. 

    For our convenience, we will put the certificate and the key in the same file, and store that file as ‘/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.pem’.

openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 365 -newkey rsa:1024 -keyout /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.pem -out /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.pem
Once above command is executed, you will be asked to provide some basic information. The output would be very much similar to:

Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key
............................................................................++++++
........++++++
writing new private key to '/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.pem'
-----
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:IN
State or Province Name (full name) []:Maharashtra
Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:Pune
Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:MyTestOrganizationLtd
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:Information Technology
Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:My Test FTP Server
Email Address []:mandar.shinde2007@gmail.com

The vsftpd configuration part

    After generating the SSL certificate, we need to instruct vsftpd to use that SSL certificate to carry out encryption process. Just like many services, vsftpd has it’s own configuration file – vsftpd.conf, which is located as ‘/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf’ for Red Hat based systems and ‘/etc/vsftpd.conf’ in Debian based systems.

    Now, let us edit the configuration file as per our requirement. You might need to find out the lines, or add them if they do not pre-exist.

Step 1 : Turn on SSL

ssl_enable=YES		# Turn ON SSL
allow_anon_ssl=NO	
force_local_data_ssl=YES	# Use encryption for data
force_local_logins_ssl=YES	# Use encryption for authentication
Step 2 : Mention the Certificate and key file location

rsa_cert_file=/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.pem
rsa_private_key_file=/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.pem
Step 3 : Enable TLS

TLS is considered to be more secure than SSL and we would definitely like to use TLS whenever required.

ssl_tlsv1=YES
ssl_sslv2=YES
ssl_sslv3=YES
Step 4 : Other basic configurations

To allow all the local users added to the system to use FTP service, edit following line:

local_enable=YES
To prevent anonymous logins, edit the following line:

anonymous_enable=NO
To accept FTP write commands, edit the following line:

write_enable=YES
With this setting, only a local user can access the FTP server and can issue write commands. But, if you want to preserve the individuality between the users and their contents you can setup a ‘chroot jail’ for the users, so that users are bound to work in their home directories and are not permitted to access any files outside them.

chroot_local_user=YES
To enable logging of the transfers carried out, edit the following lines:

xferlog_enable=YES
xferlog_std_format=YES
xferlog_file=/var/log/xferlog

Add vsftpd service to startup

With all the configurations done, you will have to restart the service so that the changes incorporated can take effect.

service vsftpd restart
By default, after a fresh installation of any package, the service associated with that package is disabled on every runlevel. This indicates that, you will have to manually restart the service after the operating system switches from one runlevel to another. In simple words, after every reboot/system startup, you will have to start the service manually. 

You can verify this by issuing the ‘chkconfig’ command as follows:

chkconfig --list vsftpd
Output:

$ chkconfig --list vsftpd
vsftpd          0:off   1:off   2:off   3:off   4:off   5:off   6:off
To overcome this and to configure the service to start automatically, you can use:

chkconfig vsftpd on

Check:

$ chkconfig --list vsftpd
vsftpd          0:off   1:off   2:on    3:on    4:on    5:on    6:off

Adding FTP users

Now, your FTP server is ready to use and you can add users who can access it. Adding the FTP users is very similar to adding users in the operating system, using ‘useradd’ command. With this, every user will get a separate home directory and with the ‘chroot jail’ activated, users will be forced to work within their home directories.

To add a user ‘mandar’, simply run:

useradd mandar
To set the password for ‘mandar’, use ‘passwd’ command as follows:

passwd mandar
You will have to mention the new password and confirm it once.

Changing password for user mandar.
New password:
Retype new password:
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
    Now the user ‘mandar’ will be able to use the FTPS Services using any FTP Client that support SSL/TLS, such as FileZilla. In order to access FTPS server through browsers, you may require to install some addons like ‘fireFTP’.

Conclusion

    With these configurations, any user, being a local user, will also have access to the FTPS server, where it can access other users’ files/directories, change configurations, add/remove files and so on, which is highly undesirable.

    As a remedy, you can limit access to any user to the FTPS server, but allow him to use FTPS services at the same time, by changing his shell to ‘/sbin/nologin’. Further, you can set a password policy for the users (/etc/pam.d/system-auth) to make them select a strong password and change regularly (chage command).

Publisher : Open Source for You (Linux For You) Magazine - An Electronics For You Group Publication, February 2015.

Monday, 8 June 2015

How To: Install/Upgrade to Linux Kernel 4.0.5 in Ubuntu/Linux Mint Systems

    The Linux Kernel 4.0.5 is now available for the users, announced Linus Torvalds. This Linux Kernel version comes with plenty of fixes and improvements. This article will guide you to install or upgrade to Linux Kernel 4.0.5 in your Ubuntu or Linux Mint system.


Installation

For 32-Bit Systems

Download the .deb packages.

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.5-wily/linux-headers-4.0.5-040005_4.0.5-040005.201506061639_all.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.5-wily/linux-headers-4.0.5-040005-generic_4.0.5-040005.201506061639_i386.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.5-wily/linux-image-4.0.5-040005-generic_4.0.5-040005.201506061639_i386.deb
Install them.

$ sudo dpkg -i linux-headers-4.0.5*.deb linux-image-4.0.5*.deb
Reboot the system.

sudo reboot

For 64-Bit Systems

Download the .deb packages.

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.5-wily/linux-headers-4.0.5-040005_4.0.5-040005.201506061639_all.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.5-wily/linux-headers-4.0.5-040005-generic_4.0.5-040005.201506061639_amd64.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.5-wily/linux-image-4.0.5-040005-generic_4.0.5-040005.201506061639_amd64.deb
Install them.

$ sudo dpkg -i linux-headers-4.0.5*.deb linux-image-4.0.5*.deb
Reboot the system.

sudo reboot

To uninstall,

sudo apt-get remove 'linux-headers-4.0.5*' 'linux-image-4.0.5*'

Monday, 25 May 2015

Cut Command in Linux - Extract Fields and Columns from a file

    In some of my recent articles on text processing, I have explained the use of sed command in Linux/Unix. In case of sed command, we provide an input file to the command, it reads the file line-by-line, processes each line and then prints it on the STDOUT. So, in brief, its a row-wise operation. Similar is the case with cut command - there is an input file, there is processing part and the processed output can be displayed on STDOUT or saved in a file. A minor difference between sed and cut is that, cut command processes the file in vertical manner. So, the outcome of the cut command is a single or multiple columns.


    As of now, just remember that, cut command is just a filter, that processes the file and extracts columns from it. Basically, using cut command, we can process a file in order to extract - either a column of characters or some fields. Thus, to achieve more clarity about cut command, we would study it in two parts.

Here we go!

A. Extracting Column of Characters

To begin with, consider a file cuttest.txt with contents as below:

$ cat cuttest.txt
This is line #1
It is line #2
That is line #3
While, this is line #4
It's line #5
I am line #6
Myself line #7
It's me, line #8
Hello, I am line #9
Last line, line #10
Now, just have a look at the basic syntax of the cut command, to extract column(s) of characters from a file:

cut -c [RANGE] [FILENAME]
To explain this briefly, we are instructing cut command to select on the specific characters specified by RANGE from the file FILENAME.

1. Display a Column of Characters

To begin with, lets display the fourth character from each line of the file cuttest.txt.

Example:

$ cat -c 4 cuttest.txt
s
i
t
l
s
m
e
s
l
t
This does make sense!

2. Display a Group of Columns of Characters

In order to extract a group of columns, we need to specify a range - Start and End, to the cut command. To try with, lets display first five characters of each line of the file.

Example:

$ cut -c 1-5 cuttest.txt
This 
It is 
That 
While
It's 
I am 
Mysel
It's 
Hello
Last 
Conclusion is - a whitespace is also considered as a character.

Another variant of this case is, when you want to start from a particular column and display till the last one. As an example, we will start displaying from the 6th column will the end. So, in this case, we would mention start of the range as '6' and we do not mention any end. Thus, it will print everything after the 6th column.

Example:

$ cut -c 6- cuttest.txt
is line #1
 line #2
is line #3
, this is line #4
line #5
line #6
f line #7
me, line #8
, I am line #9
line, line #10
Similarly, to get first 6 characters from the beginning of each line, we would have an example as follows:

$ cut -c -6 cuttest.txt
This i
It is 
That i
While,
It's l
I am l
Myself 
It's m
Hello,
Last l
Now, there might be a curiosity that, what if I don't mention the start and the end of the range. Let's see what happens-

Example:

$ cut -c - cuttest.txt
cut: invalid range with no endpoint: -
Those who thought that entire columns will be printed, are proved to be wrong. Conclusion is - There has to be a valid range.

B. Extracting Field from a File


In order to understand this usage of cut command, lets consider a csv file as follows:

$ cat employees.txt
Employee ID, Employee Name, Age, Gender, Department, Salary
101, John Davies, 35, M, Finance, $4000
102, Mary Fernandes, 29, F, Human Resources, $3000
103, Jacob Williams, 40, M, Sales, $4700
104, Sean Anderson, 25, M, Production, $2700
105, Nick Jones, 42, M, Finance, $7500
106, Diana Richardson, 29, F, Finance, $3200
Remember, in order to extract a field from a file, we would need a delimiter (i.e. a column separator), based on which the file will be divided into columns and we can extract any of them. In this case, the syntax would be-

cut -d [DELIMITER] -f [RANGE] [FILENAME]
Here, we are instructing cut command to use a particular delimiter with option -d and then extract certain fields using option -f.

1. Display a specific field from a file

In case of a csv file, it is crystal clear that our delimiter will be a comma (,). Now, we need to enlist the names of the employees working in our organization, i.e. field number 2.

Example:

$ cut -d ',' -f 2 employees.txt
Employee Name
John Davies
Mary Fernandes
Jacob Williams
Sean Anderson
Nick Jones
Diana Richardson
Looks good.

2. Displaying Multiple Fields from a File

Moving forward now, lets display more than one field now. Suppose, we need to include 'Age' and 'Gender' fields also. For this, we must specify the range - again, a start and an end.

$ cut -d ',' -f 2-4 employees.txt
Employee Name, Age, Gender
John Davies, 35, M
Mary Fernandes, 29, F
Jacob Williams, 40, M
Sean Anderson, 25, M
Nick Jones, 42, M
Diana Richardson, 29, F
Conclusion, in this case, is that, Input Delimiter = Output Delimiter.

Lets have a look at a variant in this case. Suppose, we need to extract 'Employee ID', 'Employee Name', 'Department' and 'Salary'. In that case, we need to specify two ranges as below:

Example:

$ cut -d ',' -f 1-2,5-6 employees.txt
Employee ID, Employee Name, Department, Salary
101, John Davies, Finance, $4000
102, Mary Fernandes, Human Resources, $3000
103, Jacob Williams, Sales, $4700
104, Sean Anderson, Production, $2700
105, Nick Jones, Finance, $7500
106, Diana Richardson, Finance, $3200
This is just awesome!

3. Change the Delimiter in the Output

As we just saw in one of the examples above, by default, Input Delimiter = Output Delimiter. What if I wish to change the output delimiter? Just have a look at the example below:

Example:

$ cut -d ',' -f 2-4 --output-delimiter='|' employees.txt
Employee Name| Age| Gender
John Davies| 35| M
Mary Fernandes| 29| F
Jacob Williams| 40| M
Sean Anderson| 25| M
Nick Jones| 42| M
Diana Richardson| 29| F

4. Do not Display Certain Columns


Just like above example, if we use --complement as an option, cut command will display all the fields, but the specified field.

Example:

$ cut -d ',' --complement -f 6 employees.txt
Employee ID, Employee Name, Age, Gender, Department
101, John Davies, 35, M, Finance
102, Mary Fernandes, 29, F, Human Resources
103, Jacob Williams, 40, M, Sales
104, Sean Anderson, 25, M, Production
105, Nick Jones, 42, M, Finance
106, Diana Richardson, 29, F, Finance
That's all for this tutorial. Please do let me know about your views about this article in the comment section below, and stay tuned for more awesome articles.

Monday, 18 May 2015

How To: Install/Upgrade to Linux Kernel 4.0.4 in Ubuntu/Linux Mint Systems

    The Linux Kernel 4.0.4 is now available for the users, announced Linus Torvalds. This Linux Kernel version comes with plenty of fixes and improvements. This article will guide you to install or upgrade to Linux Kernel 4.0.4 in your Ubuntu or Linux Mint system.


Installation

For 32-Bit Systems

Download the .deb packages.

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.4-wily/linux-headers-4.0.4-040004_4.0.4-040004.201505171336_all.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.4-wily/linux-headers-4.0.4-040004-generic_4.0.4-040004.201505171336_i386.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.4-wily/linux-image-4.0.4-040004-generic_4.0.4-040004.201505171336_i386.deb
Install them.

$ sudo dpkg -i linux-headers-4.0.4*.deb linux-image-4.0.4*.deb
Reboot the system.

sudo reboot

For 64-Bit Systems

Download the .deb packages.

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.4-wily/linux-headers-4.0.4-040004_4.0.4-040004.201505171336_all.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.4-wily/linux-headers-4.0.4-040004-generic_4.0.4-040004.201505171336_amd64.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.4-wily/linux-image-4.0.4-040004-generic_4.0.4-040004.201505171336_amd64.deb
Install them.

$ sudo dpkg -i linux-headers-4.0.4*.deb linux-image-4.0.4*.deb
Reboot the system.

sudo reboot

To uninstall,

sudo apt-get remove 'linux-headers-4.0.4*' 'linux-image-4.0.4*'

Friday, 15 May 2015

How To: Install/Upgrade to Linux Kernel 3.19.8 in Ubuntu/Linux Mint Systems

    The Linux Kernel 3.19.8 is now available for the users and with this, kernel 3.19 will go end-of-life. This Linux Kernel version comes with plenty of fixes and improvements. This article will guide you to install or upgrade to Linux Kernel 3.19.8 in your Ubuntu or Linux Mint system.


Installation

For 32-Bit Systems

Download the .deb packages.

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v3.19.8-vivid/linux-headers-3.19.8-031908_3.19.8-031908.201505110938_all.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v3.19.8-vivid/linux-headers-3.19.8-031908-generic_3.19.8-031908.201505110938_i386.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v3.19.8-vivid/linux-image-3.19.8-031908-generic_3.19.8-031908.201505110938_i386.deb
Install them.

$ sudo dpkg -i linux-headers-3.19.8*.deb linux-image-3.19.8*.deb
Reboot the system.

sudo reboot

For 64-Bit Systems

Download the .deb packages.

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v3.19.8-vivid/linux-headers-3.19.8-031908_3.19.8-031908.201505110938_all.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v3.19.8-vivid/linux-headers-3.19.8-031908-generic_3.19.8-031908.201505110938_amd64.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v3.19.8-vivid/linux-image-3.19.8-031908-generic_3.19.8-031908.201505110938_amd64.deb
Install them.

$ sudo dpkg -i linux-headers-3.19.8*.deb linux-image-3.19.8*.deb
Reboot the system.

sudo reboot

To uninstall,

sudo apt-get remove 'linux-headers-3.19.8*' 'linux-image-3.19.8*'

Thursday, 14 May 2015

How To: Install/Upgrade to Linux Kernel 4.0.3 in Ubuntu/Linux Mint Systems

    The Linux Kernel 4.0.3 is now available for the users, announced Linus Torvalds. This Linux Kernel version comes with plenty of fixes and improvements. This article will guide you to install or upgrade to Linux Kernel 4.0.3 in your Ubuntu or Linux Mint system.


Installation

For 32-Bit Systems

Download the .deb packages.

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.3-wily/linux-headers-4.0.3-040003_4.0.3-040003.201505131441_all.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.3-wily/linux-headers-4.0.3-040003-generic_4.0.3-040003.201505131441_i386.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.3-wily/linux-image-4.0.3-040003-generic_4.0.3-040003.201505131441_i386.deb
Install them.

$ sudo dpkg -i linux-headers-4.0.3*.deb linux-image-4.0.3*.deb
Reboot the system.

sudo reboot

For 64-Bit Systems

Download the .deb packages.

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.3-wily/linux-headers-4.0.3-040003_4.0.3-040003.201505131441_all.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.3-wily/linux-headers-4.0.3-040003-generic_4.0.3-040003.201505131441_amd64.deb

$ wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v4.0.3-wily/linux-image-4.0.3-040003-generic_4.0.3-040003.201505131441_amd64.deb
Install them.

$ sudo dpkg -i linux-headers-4.0.3*.deb linux-image-4.0.3*.deb
Reboot the system.

sudo reboot

To uninstall,

sudo apt-get remove 'linux-headers-4.0.3*' 'linux-image-4.0.3*'

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